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发布于:2018-1-4 05:04:48  访问:6 次 回复:0 篇
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Ry cortices, subject to voluntary handle, and manifested as beliefs, expectations
The foregoing research, when not monolithic in agreement, converge on many conclusions: interpolation can proceed even when observers JNJ-54781532 web attempt to cease it; interest can modulate interpolation, a minimum of cddis.2015.241 for weakly-grouped components; and processes subsequent to (or otherwise separate from) interpolation could be relevant for interpreting first-hand reports and psychophysical information, specifically when the stimuli are observed for extended durations. This definition is (perhaps necessarily) imprecise, but should be enough for interpreting the data presented herein. 2The colour memory activity might have served to not weaken interpolation, but to strengthen the representation of your fragmented array in which the color patches appeared. This memorized configuration primarily may have "out-competed" the amodal contours in guiding interest. Such an explanation is rendered much more plausible by the information that observers could not respond till 600 ms soon after inducer onset, and that interpolation strength may rapidly rise and fall inside 200 ms of inducer onset (Lee Nguyen, 2001; Keane et al., 2007). Others have also argued that lately stored stimulus representations can trump the attentional guidance afforded by (currently visible) actual and interpolated contours (Zemel, Behrmann, Mozer, Bavelier, 2002).watermark-text watermark-text watermark-textCognition. Author manuscript; out there in PMC 2013 June 01.Keane et al.Pageworthy of further study--should be regarded with caution, considering the fact that they may outcome from the construction or manipulation of representations at comparatively late (post-interpolation) stages in visual processing (Kellman, Garrigan, Shipley, 2005). Paradigms most relevant to the present study are those that examine the filling-in, and not just grouping, of interpolated contours, exactly where ‘filling-in‘ refers for the tendency to represent and rely upon the regions corresponding to the missing contours. 4 In 1 such study, "fat" and "thin" Kanizsa squares had been harder to differentiate when distractor lines appeared close to the illusory boundaries (Ringach Shapley, 1996). This occurred although subjects knew that the lines had been task-irrelevant and even though the lines had been well-separated in the inducing edges journal.pgen.1001210 on the squares. No such impairment was found in a control condition that lacked filled-in contours. In a separate study, when subjects have been explicitly and repeatedly told to ignore distractor lines, the discrimination of illusory (but not fragmented) shapes strongly depended on those lines (Keane, Lu, Papathomas, Silverstein, Kellman, submitted). Others have identified a reliance on filling-in regions with standard Kanizsa shapes, noise-corrupted Kanizsa shapes, and spatiotemporal illusory shapes (Gold, Murray, Bennett, Sekuler, 2000; Gold Shubel, 2006; Keane, Lu, Kellman, 2007; Sekuler Murray, 2001; a0016355 Zhou, Tjan, Zhou, Liu, 2008). A few studies demonstrated attentional modulation of contour filling-in but in all of these cases the integrated elements did not strongly group either because of narrowband spatial frequency composition (Freeman, Sagi, Driver, 2001), misaligned edges (McMains Kastner, 2011) or inadequate junction structure (Li, Pich, Gilbert, 2008; Rubin, 2001). The foregoing research, even though not monolithic in agreement, converge on a number of conclusions: interpolation can proceed even when observers attempt to quit it; attention can modulate interpolation, at least cddis.2015.241 for weakly-grouped elements; and processes subsequent to (or otherwise separate from) interpolation may possibly be relevant for interpreting first-hand reports and psychophysical data, especially when the stimuli are observed for extended durations.
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